The simple answer is yes.
Resume is essentially an American term for a CV or Curriculum Vitae but there are subtle differences between examples of resume writing and CV writing.
UK based CVs tend to have a basic format at their core that covers Education followed by Employment History and then any personal of additional information. Within the Employment History you usually talk about the job you did, your responsibilities and if you’re a bit more switched on you’ll also include some achievements.
A resume writer will come at it from a slightly different angle. There will be much more emphasis on broader skills and achievements as an opening section, generally followed by simple 1-liners about who they worked for and when.
As a CV writer I find the resume approach a bit impersonal and that it isolates achievements and skills from the job you were doing at the time, which takes away relevance. Resumes are also seen much more as a selling tool which doesn’t really sit well with the British mentality and aversion to “showing off”.
If you’re an American with a resume and looking for a job in the UK you’ll probably need to get your resume rewritten so it’s more like a conventional CV, and for any Brits looking for a job in the states you’ll need a complete rethink on that CV of yours!